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Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare gingival lesion that presents as localized or generalized enlargement of the attached gingiva. The gingiva is characterized as pink, firm, and very fibrous, with little tendency to bleed. HGF can present as an isolated feature or as part of a syndrome. Recent findings report a defect in the Son of sevenless-1 gene on chromosome 2p21-p22 (HGF1) as a possible cause of this clinical presentation. HGF inheritance is transmitted through both autosomal dominant and recessive modes. While clinicians disagree on the modalities and timing of treatment for HGF, the clinical condition generally requires repeated resective periodontal surgical procedures over the patient’s lifetime. This article reviews differential diagnosis, etiology, complications, and treatment of HGF.